Heat and Thermodynamics
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Heat & Thermodynamics
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Heat and temperature (article) | Khan Academy
Work is also equal to the negative external pressure on the system multiplied by the change in volume:. This is specifically called "pressure-volume" work. The internal energy of a system would decrease if the system gives off heat or does work. Therefore, internal energy of a system increases when the heat increases this would be done by adding heat into a system. The internal energy would also increase if work were done onto a system.
Any work or heat that goes into or out of a system changes the internal energy. However, since energy is never created nor destroyed thus, the first law of thermodynamics , the change in internal energy always equals zero. If energy is lost by the system, then it is absorbed by the surroundings. If energy is absorbed into a system, then that energy was released by the surroundings:. The above figure is a visual example of the First Law of Thermodynamics.
The blue cubes represent the system and the yellow circles represent the surroundings around the system. If energy is lost by the cube system then it is gained by the surroundings. Energy is never created nor destroyed.
- The Meaning of Shakespeare, Volume 1 (Phoenix Books).
- An Overview of Thermodynamics.
- Fundamental concepts.
Since the area of the clue cube decreased the visual area of the yellow circle increased. This symbolizes how energy lost by a system is gained by the surroundings. The affects of different surroundings and changes on a system help determine the increase or decrease of internal energy, heat and work. These properties are characteristic parameters that have definite values at each state and are independent of the way in which the system arrived at that state.
In other words, any change in value of a property depends only on the initial and final states of the system, not on the path followed by the system from one state to another. Such properties are called state functions. In contrast, the work done as the piston moves and the gas expands and the heat the gas absorbs from its surroundings depend on the detailed way in which the expansion occurs.
By isolating samples of material whose states and properties can be controlled and manipulated, properties and their interrelations can be studied as the system changes from state to state. Info Print Print. Table Of Contents. Submit Feedback. Thank you for your feedback. Introduction Fundamental concepts Thermodynamic states Thermodynamic equilibrium Temperature Work and energy Total internal energy The first law of thermodynamics Heat engines Isothermal and adiabatic processes The second law of thermodynamics Entropy Entropy and efficiency limits Entropy and heat death Entropy and the arrow of time Open systems Thermodynamic potentials Gibbs free energy and chemical reactions Enthalpy and the heat of reaction Thermodynamic properties and relations Work of expansion and contraction Equations of state Heat capacity and specific heat Heat capacity and internal energy Entropy as an exact differential The Clausius-Clapeyron equation Concluding remarks.
Written By: Gordon W. The most important laws of thermodynamics are:. The zeroth law of thermodynamics.