Matter in the Universe (Space Sciences Series of ISSI)

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For years now scientists have been looking for "dark matter" or "dark energy"—with our current inventory of particles and forces in nature we just can't explain major cosmological phenomena, such as why the universe is expanding at an ever faster rate. New theories for "dark energy" have been suggested.

One of the candidates is the so-called "symmetron field," which is said to pervade space much like the Higgs field. The measurements The demand for lighter, stronger, and more durable materials for use in vehicles has never been higher. Companies are looking at new and advanced materials such as lightweight advanced high-strength steels AHSS to develop automotive components that help increase gas efficiency, reduce maintenance costs, and save lives.

For the first time, a team of researchers have discovered two different magnetic skyrmion phases in a single material, leading to a better understanding of magnetic structures.

Space Sciences Series of ISSI (SSSI

Researchers from Technical Universities of Munich and Dresden and the University of Cologne, Germany, have discovered the two magnetic skyrmion phases and can now better study the properties of the structures. Similar structures to that of a whirlpool can be observed in magnetic materials. Magnetic whirls are formed when the magnetic moments are aligned in a circular fashion.

These so-called skyrmions are not just interesting for basic research — because of their stability and their tiny dimensions — but they could be key for the development of future The electrochemical performance of these batteries is limited by the metallic electrode, which suffers structural transformations and corrosion during cycling that reduces the cycle life of the battery. Case studies of MH-air and Fe-air batteries are highlighted. This collaboration in big science comes as the companies work to innovate new space technologies, working specifically to advance the characterisation of aerospace materials and make fabrication processes more efficient by probing matter with x-rays and neutrons.

Space exploration has led to many societal benefits that have improved quality of life on Earth, for example, the first satellites contributed to knowledge and capabilities for:. An international research team has used a structural biological approach to elucidate the maturation of a cancer-causing microRNA in gene regulation. In the future, the authors hope to develop new therapies based on their findings. Cancer-causing miRNAs, so-called oncomiRs, also function according to this principle and inhibit the production of proteins that protect the cell against uncontrolled growth.

We are the first to successfully grow centimeter-sized single crystals of garnet-type by the floating zone method. Today, all-solid-state secondary lithium-ion batteries have attracted attention in research and development all over the world as a next-generation energy storage device. A key material for the all-solid-state lithium batteries is inorganic solid electrolyte, including oxide and sulfide materials.

Among the oxide electrolytes, garnet-type oxide exhibits the highest lithium-ion conductivity and a wide electrochemical potential window. However, they have major problems for practical realization. One of the major problems is an internal short-circuit in charging and discharging. In the polycrystalline garnet-type oxide Scientists have been using the latest science to reveal the specific usage of Bronze Age swords dating back to BCE.

In order to learn more about these precious artefacts, one must take samples, which can be a very challenging procedure when you are dealing with an incredibly fragile, year old specimen that is the only one of its kind in the world. Traditional, destructive sampling techniques have thus restricted experiments to a bare minimum and only permitted analysis in special, one-off cases.

Scientists at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are using neutrons to understand why certain hydrocarbons produced by blue-green algae are important to their biology, so new strains can be engineered to sustainably produce biofuels. Neutron scattering makes it possible to non-destructively see inside living algae at real world temperatures and in real time. The results could be useful in the search for suitable magnetocaloric materials for energy-efficient heating and cooling systems.

Magnetocaloric materials heat up when they enter a magnetic field, and cool down again when they leave it. This phenomenon can be exploited to produce quiet, energy-efficient, and environmentally friendly heating and cooling devices, but the high cost of materials has however severely hampered its wider application in mass-market products.

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Scientists have known about this effect for more than years: if The authors report on the latest developments in neutron tomography, illustrating the possible applications using examples of this non-destructive method. Neutron tomography has facilitated breakthroughs in so diverse areas such as art history, battery research, dentistry, energy materials, industrial research, magnetism, palaeobiology and plant physiology. Neutrons can penetrate deep into a sample without destroying it. In addition, neutrons can also distinguish between light elements such as hydrogen, Researchers have used inelastic neutron scattering to study the properties of a sugar-based plastic that could start to replace conventional plastic bottles in the near future.

Our plastic habit has come under increasing scrutiny in recent years as the movement against plastic waste gathers momentum. But it's not just the amount of plastic we produce that's a huge problem — it's how we make it. Fossil resources provide the feedstock materials for plastics and also power the plastic manufacturing processes.

The enzyme PKG II protein kinase G II — a cyclic guanosine monophosphate dependent kinase plays an important role in human health, but can increase the risk of diseases like stomach cancer and osteoporosis if not activated. Dynamic strain aging DSA , observed macroscopically as serrated plastic flow, has long been seen in nickel-base superalloys when plastically deformed at elevated temperatures.

Here we report the absence of DSA in Inconel made by additive manufacturing AM at temperatures and strain rates where DSA is present in its conventionally processed counterpart. This absence is attributed to the unique AM microstructure of finely dispersed secondary phases carbides, N-rich phases, and Laves phase and textured grains. Based on experimental observations, we propose a dislocation-arrest model to elucidate the criterion for DSA to occur or to be absent as a competition between dislocation pipe diffusion and carbide—carbon reactions.

This shortcut may open possibilities in heat When I read scientific papers, I often end up pondering questions that are — in the grand scheme of things — mere footnotes and details. Quite simply, I lose sight of the big issues. Fortunately, one benefit of teaching physics to undergraduates, as I do, is that it lets me take a broader perspective.

Take the way that textbooks deal with the fundamental differences between the states of matter.

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While these works contain neat and cohesive descriptions of gases and solids, many struggle with liquids. Transitions between different phases of matter are part of our day-to-day lives: when water freezes, for example, it passes from liquid to solid state. Some of these transitions may be of a different kind, resulting from so-called topological excitations that force all the particles to act in unison.

Neutron scattering has revealed, in real time, the fundamental mechanisms behind the conversion of sunlight into energy in hybrid perovskite materials. A better understanding of this behavior will enable manufacturers to design solar cells with increased efficiency. By examining the material under varying degrees of temperature, the researchers were able to track atomic structural changes and Plants, algae, and other organisms produce the RuBisCO enzyme to convert carbon dioxide from the atmosphere into energy-rich molecules, like glucose, that form carbohydrates and other organic carbon compounds essential to life on earth.

This catalytic process is called "carbon fixation. This was at a time when Thebes in Egypt was the largest city in the World.

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Jump forward 3, years to and UK scientists and their Italian colleagues were able to create reconstructions of the inner parts of both vases to understand their structure and elemental composition without touching, damaging or taking samples from either artefact. The two vases were discovered in , when the Italian archaeologist Ernesto Schiaparelli and the Inspector of Antiquities at Luxor, Arthur Weigall, opened the door of There are many different forms of ice — all of which vary significantly from the ice you'd find in your freezer.

Ice takes on many different forms depending on the pressure at which it developed. As water freezes its molecules rearrange themselves, and high pressure causes the molecules to rearrange in different ways than they normally would. The many distinct phases of ice can be Materials used in electronic devices are typically chosen because they possess either special magnetic or special electrical properties. However, an international team of researchers using neutron scattering recently identified a rare material that has both. Many materials are known for just one characteristic magnetic or electrical property, or for having the ability to change shape, but multiferroics contain some combination of these attributes.

Except in horror movies, most scientific experiments don't start with scientists snooping around narrow, deserted hallways. The team uses five particle detectors to identify a specific interaction between neutrinos and atomic nuclei. They interact very little with other particles.