Philosophical Life: 12 Great Thinkers Who Sought to Live Well, from Socrates to Nietzsche
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Starting with Socrates who, with his injunction to? The selection includes both canonical figures such as Augustine, Descartes and Kant, and less obvious thinkers including Diogenes, Montaigne and Emerson, but every one of them has? Seller Inventory More information about this seller Contact this seller. Book Description Oneworld Publications. Book Description One World.
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Seller Inventory Durga Book Description Condition: New. This is Brand New. Seller Inventory Adarsh This captures the lives of the twelve most significant Western philosophers through the lens of their own philosophy and those who preceded them. Chronologically ordered, it investigates their influence on each other throughout history, contrasting their published works against their personal lives.
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Seller Inventory May May James Miller. Publisher: Oneworld Publications. This specific ISBN edition is currently not available.
View all copies of this ISBN edition:. In his own contribution to the grand survey genre, Miller, a professor of politics at the New School for Social Research in New York City, offers a feast of conventional selection and judgment, and scant critical perspective. On this second front, Miller disappoints by presenting nothing new, but only potted bios of his greats, all done, admittedly, with the solid research of the professor Miller now is and the smooth style of the Newsweek journalist he used to be.
Examined Lives is, then, an exercise in the Higher Wikipedia, which is not meant to sound completely snide. But those serious about exploring the philosophical tradition of pondering the exemplary life would be better advised to turn to the challenging work of the late French philosopher Pierre Hadot, particularly his Philosophy as a Way of Life. Long anointed as a kind of King of Jurisprudence by the New York Review of Books , bestowing on him a powerful, protected status among academics in that field, Dworkin specializes in the illusion of argumentative rigor, wed to a clear but colorless style.
One would expect a sophisticated philosopher to approach the concept of justice with humility. As the late American philosopher Robert C. It is very different from the sense of justice that one would find in feudal France, in the Florentine renaissance, or in the bourgeois London society of Jane Austen. It is very different, indeed, from the sense of justice one finds in contemporary Japan or Iran. Dworkin identifies with the hedgehog. Thus, Dionysian art customarily works in two ways on Apollonian artistic potential: music stimulates us to the metaphorical viewing of the Dionysian universality, and music then permits that metaphorical image to come forward with the highest significance.
Meaning of life
From this inherently intelligible observation and without any deeper considerations of unapproachable things, I conclude that music is capable of generating myth , that is, the most meaningful example, and of giving birth in particular to the tragic myth, the myth which speaks in metaphors of the Dionysian insight. Opera is the offspring of the theoretical man, of the critical layman, not of the artist [ In the beginning of opera, the union of music, image, and word was treated according to the amateurish, unmusical crudity of these views.
The first one was Greek tragedy. Nietzsche considers that there was before the time of classical tragedy 5 th c. BC a sharp divide between the arts and therefore between Apollonian and Dionysian principles.
Before the tragedy, there was an era of static, idealized plastic art in the form of sculpture that represented the Apollonian view of the world. The Dionysian element was to be found in the wild revelry of festivals and drunkenness, but, most importantly, in music. The combination of these elements in one art form gave birth to tragedy. Nietzsche theorizes that the chorus was originally always satyrs, goat-men. But the 5 th century brought them together in a new culture experiment that lasted until it collapsed a few decades later.
Nietzsche argues that the tragedy of Ancient Greece was the highest form of art due to its mixture of both Apollonian and Dionysian elements into one seamless whole, allowing the spectator to experience the full spectrum of the human condition.
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The Dionysian element was to be found in the music of the chorus, while the Apollonian element was found in the dialogue which gave a concrete symbolism that balanced the Dionysiac revelry. Basically, the Apollonian spirit was able to give form to the abstract Dionysian. Nietzsche ties this to the influence of writers like Euripides and the coming of rationality, represented by Socrates.
Euripides reduced the use of the chorus and was more naturalistic in his representation of human drama, making it more reflective of the realities of daily life. Socrates emphasized reason to such a degree that he diffused the value of myth and suffering to human knowledge. For Nietzsche, these two intellectuals helped drain the ability of the individual to participate in forms of art, because they saw things too soberly and rationally.
The second moment is still in process. The surest favorable signs bring us the guarantee of the reverse process, of the gradual awakening of the Dionysian spirit in our contemporary world! This remark enables Nietzsche to partly overcome his own dualistic prejudices concerning being and language. Can they imagine a person capable of perceiving the third act of Tristan and Isolde purely as an immense symphonic movement, getting no help from words and images, without suffocating from a convulsive spreading of all the wings of the soul?
The work of the plastic artist has an entirely different purpose: here Apollo overcomes the suffering of the individual through the bright exaltation in the eternity of the illusion. Here beauty is victorious over the suffering inherent in life. The pain is, in a certain sense, brushed away from the face of nature. We could just as surely claim about this depiction of the action that it is only a marvelous appearance, i.
The symbolic picture of the myth saves us from the immediate look at the highest world idea, just as the idea and the word save us from the unrestrained outpouring of the unconscious Will. The Apollonian principle allows to overcome the violence of the Dionysian and to transform it into individuals, symbols, words, and aesthetic artifacts.
Thus the Apollonian rescues us from Dionysian universality and delights us with individuals. It attaches our aroused feelings of sympathy to them, and with them it satisfies our sense of beauty. For in particular examples of such a destruction [of heroes] is made clear to us the eternal phenomenon of Dionysian art, which brings into expression the Will in its omnipotence out from behind, so to speak, the principium individuationis , the eternal life beyond all appearances and in spite of all destruction.
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Under the incessant changes in phenomena, the eternally creative primordial mother, eternally forcing things into existence, eternally satisfied with the changing nature of appearances! Dionysian art thus wishes to convince us of the eternal delight in existence: only we are to seek this delight, not in appearances, but behind them; we are to recognize how everything which comes into being must be ready for painful destruction [ For a short time we really are the primordial essence itself and feel its unbridled lust for and joy in existence.
The drama, which, with the help of music, spreads out in front of us with such inwardly illuminated clarity in all its movements and forms, as if we were seeing the fabric on the loom while the shuttle moves back and forth, achieves its effect as a totality which lies beyond all the artistic workings of the Apollonian. In the total effect of tragedy the Dionysian regains its superiority once more. Tragedy ends with a tone which never could resound from the realm of Apollonian art. And as that happens, the Apollonian illusion reveals itself for what it is, as the veil which, so long as the tragedy is going on, has covered the essentially Dionysian effect.